Cleaning Product Ingredient Safety Initiative
ACI developed the Cleaning Product Ingredient Safety Initiative (CPISI) in order to illustrate how safety data and risk assessment methodology are used to demonstrate the safe use of ingredients present in our members’ products.
Complete human and environmental safety data will be made publicly available for every chemical ingredient used in every formulated consumer cleaning product manufactured by ACI members. This information will include sufficient hazard data and exposure information, consistent with the use of the ingredient, to perform a screening-level risk assessment demonstrating the safe use of each ingredient.
ACI began this project by compiling a comprehensive Ingredient Inventory used among our members in the manufacture of consumer cleaning products sold in the United States. Ingredient lists were compiled from over 900 products and different naming conventions standardized to produce the inventory of 582 ingredients that is searchable below. As part of this effort, information on function, chemical category, and product use were collected so that these data could be used to inform hazard and exposure assessment.
Once the Ingredient Inventory was completed, ACI began a compilation of human health and environmental hazard data for each ingredient from publicly available sources. The goal of this effort was to develop a complete hazard data set that could be used for screening level risk assessment. Over 7,800 individual records were collected from a wide range of sources. Collection sources ranged from general findings regarding safety to highly specific results of lab studies, to values adopted for use as benchmarks by governmental organizations based on research from multiple studies. Data collection focused on chronic and repeated dose toxicity testing, but included collection of any data that were available. In some cases, this included results from studies examining carcinogenicity or sensitization, although data for these endpoints was not always available. The hazard data were examined to establish a dose-response threshold against which to compare exposure; however, the carcinogenicity and sensitization endpoints were not used to establish the threshold. Hazard data were filtered based on data quality and prioritized based on transparency and defensibility of the source of information. Where data were subject to uncertainty, assessment factors were applied to make values more conservative. In some cases, read across was applied by using data for structurally similar ingredients to fill data gaps. The end result was the identification of either quantitative threshold values or a defensible safety finding for 492 of the 582 ingredients. Of the remaining ingredients, half (45) are proprietary and hazard information is maintained by manufacturer. The remaining 45 ingredients are the subject of further study.
While hazard data were being collected, exposure models were run to quantify human health exposure to each ingredient from products in which it occurs. Assumptions regarding product types, cleaning habits and practices, and concentration of ingredients in different product forms was developed from scientific and trade literature as well as member company listings. This information was used to develop quantitative exposure models for consumer exposure to both individual product types and multiple product types over the course of the day. The end result was a database of over 2,883 unique combinations of ingredient, product type, and exposure route.
Exposure estimates, hazard data, and past findings were combined to produce a human health screening level risk assessments for the 492 ingredients for which publicly available hazard data were available. A total of 87 ingredients were identified as unlikely to produce risks based on the findings of past risk assessments and studies. Another 405 ingredients were assessed via a quantitative screening level risk assessment in which exposure estimates and hazard data were combined to calculate a risk characterization ratio (RCR). AN RCR below 1 indicates minimal potential for risk while an RCR above 1 indicates a possible risk. A total of 386 ingredients demonstrated were found unlikely to pose risks because their RCR values were below 1 even under conservative maximum case exposure scenarios. A small number of ingredients (19) had RCR above 1 under maximum case scenarios; these were found to warrant additional study via refining risk assessment methods. In most of these cases, risks were associated with conservative regarding ingredient concentrations or conservative assessment factors that warrant additional research and review.
In summary, the CPISI project produced screening level risk assessment results in the form of risk models or review of past findings for over 80% of the 582 ingredients studied, and found that 95% of those ingredients were unlikely to produce risks even when highly conservative exposure models and hazard values were used. There are 45 ingredients which were not able to be studied because they are proprietary; safety information is maintained by their manufacturer. Another 45 ingredients are the subject of further review; data are available for many of these, but were not usable for the screening level risk assessment.
More detail about the development of each component of this CPISI project can be found on the Frequently Asked Questions page. You may also contact ACI directly by completing the Contact Us form.
SEARCHING FOR INGREDIENTS
To search for an ingredient in a cleaning product, you may use the search box below, or click the link to see a list an alphabetical listing of all of the ingredients included in the Ingredient Inventory. The list can be searched by entering either the ingredient CAS number or name or partial name into the search box. Clicking on each ingredient name will lead to a new page that provides a summary of the hazard and exposure data collected, along with a summary of the screening-level risk assessment results.
Why can't I find the name for an ingredient on the Inventory?
There are many different naming conventions that can be used to refer to the same ingredient. To compile the Inventory, multiple names for the same ingredient were often consolidated; also, names that were general were related to more specific sets of ingredients. If the name of the ingredient you are looking for does not appear below, you can access the Ingredient Naming Translator. The Translator lists all of the possible naming conventions for an ingredient that were encountered in the survey of products and identifies the standardized names or names associated with it. Click here to access the Ingredient Naming Translator.