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Soaps & Detergents: Ingredient Key

00P I

The following key indicates the product category in which an ingredient may be used. The key letters appear below each ingredient.
 01P Iic
Personal Cleansing
 02P Iic
Laundry
 03P Iic
Dishwashing
04P Iic
Household Cleaners
Ingredient
Primary Functions
Comments
Typical Examples
Abrasives
01Chrtic
 
Supply smoothing, scrubbing and/or polishing action Calcite
Feldspar
Quartz
Sand
Acids
02Chrtic
 
Neutralize or adjust alkalinity of other ingredients
Some specialty cleaners need extra acidity to remove mineral build-up
Acetic acid
Citric acid
Hydrochloric acid
Phosphoric acid
Sulfuric acid
Alkalis
03Chrtic
  • Neutralize or adjust acidity of other ingredients
  • Make surfactants and builders more efficient
  • Increase alkalinity
Alkalinity is useful in removing acidic, fatty and oily soils. Therefore, detergents are more effective when they are alkaline.
 
Ammonium   &nbsphydroxide
Ethanolamines
Sodium carbonate
Sodium hydroxide
Sodium silicate
Antimicrobial agents
03Chrtic
 
Kill or inhibit growth of microorganisms that cause diseases and/or odor Pine oil
Quaternary     ammonium compounds
Sodium hypochlorite
Triclocarban
Triclosan
Antiredeposition     agents
05Chrtic
 
Prevent soil from resettling after removal during washing Carboxymethyl       cellulose
Polycarbonates
Polyethylene glycol
Sodium silicate
Bleaches
06Chrtic
 
Help whiten, brighten and remove stains
    Chlorine bleach
Also disinfects Sodium hypochlorite
    Oxygen bleach
In some products, may be combined with bleach activator for better performance in lower water temperatures. Sodium perborate
Sodium percarbonate
Colorants
03Chrtic
 
  • Provide special identity to product
  • Provide bluing action
Pigments or dyes
Corrosion inhibitors
05Chrtic
 
Protect metal machine parts and finishes, china patterns and metal utensils Sodium silicate
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Enzymes
06Chrtic
 
  • Proteins classified by the type of soil they break down to simpler forms for removal by detergent
  • Cellulase reduces pilling and greying of fabrics containing cotton and helps remove particulate soils.
Amylase (starch soils)
Lipase (fatty and oily soils)
Protease (protein soils)
Cellulase
Fabric softening agents
11Chrtic
 
Impart softness and control static electricity in fabrics Quaternary ammonium compounds
Fluorescent whitening agents
11Chrtic
 
Attach to fabrics to create a whitening or brightening effect when exposed to daylight
Also called optical brighteners.
Colorless fluorescing compounds
Fragrances
03Chrtic
 
  • Mask base odor of ingredients and package
  • Cover odors of soil
  • Provide special identity to product
  • Provide pleasant odor to clothes and rooms
Fragrance blends
Hydrotropes
06Chrtic
 
  • Prevent liquid products from separating into layers
  • Ensure product homogeneity
Cumene sulfonates
Ethyl alcohol
Toluene sulfonates
Xylene sulfonates
Opacifiers
03Chrtic
 
  • Reduce transparency or make product opaque
  • Provide a special effect
Polymers
Titanium dioxide
Preservatives
03Chrtic
 
Protect against natural effects of product aging, e.g., decay, discoloration, oxidation and bacterial attack Butylated hydroxytoluene
Ethylene diamine
tetraacetic acid
Glutaraldehyde
Processing aids
03Chrtic
 
  • Provide important physical characteristics, e.g., proper pour or flow, viscosity, solubility, stability and uniform density
  • Assist in manufacturing
Clays
Polymers
Sodium silicate
Sodium sulfate
Solvents
Solvents
06Chrtic
 
  • Prevent separation or deterioration of ingredients in liquid products
  • Dissolve organic soils
  • Clean without leaving residue
    Solvents used in cleaning products are water soluble
Ethanol
Isopropanol
Propylene glycol
Suds control agents
 
Ensure optimum sudsing (foaming) level needed for a cleaning job
    Suds stabilizers
    18Chrtic
Maintain high sudsing where suds level is an important indicator of cleaning power Alkanolamides
Alkylamine oxides
    Suds suppressors
    06Chrtic
Control sudsing where suds would interfere with cleaning action Alkyl phosphates
Silicones
Soap

 

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